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13th December

1545
On 13th December, 1545, Council of Trent started. The Council of Trent held between the years 1545 and 1563 in northern Italy, Trento. This was an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church. It is Encouraged by the Protestant Reformation. This has been designated as the personification of the Counter-Reformation. The Council delivered censures of what it distinct to be dissents dedicated by Protestantism and important declarations and explanations of the Church’s teachings and doctrine, the Biblical canon, sacred tradition, including scripture, original sin, salvation, justification, the sacraments, the Mass and the worship of saints.

1642
Abel Tasman reached to New Zealand on 13th December, 1642. Abel Janszoon Tasman was a Dutch explorer, seafarer and merchant. He is also best known for his voyages of the year 1642 and year 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company. He was the 1st called European voyager to reach the islands of New Zealand and Van Diemen’s Land and to sight the Fiji islands.

1758
The English transport ship Duke William sunk in the North Atlantic on 13th December, 1758 and this killed more than 360 people. The Duke William was a ship and this was used for transporting troop at the Siege of Louisbourg. As a transportation ship in the Île Saint-Jean Campaign of the Exclusion of the Acadians through the 7 Years’ Battle. While the Duke William was moving Acadians from Île St Jean to France, the ship sank in the North Atlantic on 13th December, 1758, it sunk and more than 360 people died. The sinking was one of the utmost marine disasters in Canadian history.

1818
On 13th December, 1818, Cyril VI of Constantinople resigned from his location as Ecumenical Patriarch. Cyril VI lay name Konstantinos Serpetzoglou was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople what held between the years 1813 and 1818. He was born in Edirne in 1769. He was a good student. He was put under the protection of the local metropolitan bishop Callinicus V, who intended him deacon in the year 1791 and employed him as a secretary. In 1801, when Cyril was selected as a Patriarch, he appointed him great archdeacon of the Patriarchate. From that place he was particularly engaged with the reorganization of the Great School of the Nation, which was then stirred to Kuruçeşme.

1867
On 13th December, 1867, A Fenian bomb exploded in Clerkenwell, London and six people killed in this accident. Fenian was an umbrella term what formed for the Fenian Brotherhood and Irish Republican Brotherhood, fraternal organizations enthusiastic to the formation of an autonomous Irish Republic in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The term Fenian is still popular and used today, in Northern Ireland and less so in Scotland. Clerkenwell is an part of central London, England. This was an ancient parish and this started from the year 1900 to year 1965 what formed part of the Metropolitan Area of Finsbury. The well after which it was named was revived in the year 1924.

1928
George Gershwin’s An American in Paris was 1st performed on 13th December, 1928. George Jacob Gershwin was a popular American composer and pianist. Gershwin’s arrangements covered both classical and popular genres, and his most general melodies were broadly recognized. Among his best-known works are the involved arrangements Rhapsody in Blue and An American in Paris and the Bess and opera Porgy.

1943
During the Second World War, on 13th December, 1943, The Massacre of Kalavryta by German inhabiting forces in Greece. The Massacre of Kalavryta or the Holocaust of Kalavryta called to the extinction of the male populace and the total obliteration of the city of Kalavryta, Greece, by German occupying military forces through the second World War, on 13th December 1943. In December 1943, the German Army’s 117th Jäger Division started a mission what was named Unternehmen Kalavryta meaning to enclose Greek Confrontation guerilla fighters in the rocky area close to the Kalavryta.

1959
On 13th December, 1959, Archbishop Makarios III became the 1st President of Cyprus. Makarios III was a Greek politician and Cypriot clergyman. He served as the Primate and Archbishop of the autocephalous Church of Cyprus from 1950 to 1977 and as the 1st President of Cyprus and served from the year 1960 to year 1977. In his 3 terms as President he endured 4 killing attempts and a coup d’état. He was broadly stared by Greek Cypriots as the Father of the Nation or “Ethnarch” . The President of Cyprus is the head of government and the head of state of the Republic of Cyprus. The office was formed in the year 1960, after Cyprus expanded its freedom from the United Kingdom. Currently, the President of Cyprus is Anastasiades, since 28th February 2013.

1974
On 13th December, 1974, Malta became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations. Malta is formally called the Republic of Malta. It is a Southern European island country what containing of an archipelago and located in the Mediterranean Sea. The Commonwealth of Nations is also called as simply the Commonwealth. This is an international organization. This organization contains 52 member states that are mostly previous terrains of the British Territory. The Commonwealth functions by international agreement of the member states, organized through the Commonwealth Secretariat and non-governmental organizations, organized complete the Commonwealth Foundation.
2001
Sansad Bhavan, the building housing the Indian Parliament was confronted by extremists on 13th December, 2001. 12 people were murdered as well as the terrorists. The Sansad Bhawan is the house of the Parliament of India. It is situated in New Delhi. The Parliament of India is the supreme lawmaking body of the Republic of India and it is collected of the President of India and the houses. This is two-tier with two houses: the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. The President in his role as head of legislature has full powers to summon and dissolve Lok Sabha. The president can use these powers only upon the guidance of the Prime Minister and his Union Council of Ministers. The 2001 Indian Parliament attack was a serious attack what held at the Parliament of India in New Delhi on 13th December 2001. The criminals were Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed terrorists. The attack on the symbol of Indian Democracy ran to the killing of 5 terrorists, 6 Delhi Police personnel, 2 Assembly Security Service personnel and a gardener.

2011
On 13th December, 2011, a murder–suicide held in Liège, Belgium what killed 6 people and injuried 125 people at a Christmas market. Liège is a major Walloon municipality. This is the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. On 13 December 2011, a murder attack on Christmas market. The incident held in the city of Liège in the Wallonia region of Belgium. The attacker was 33 years old named Nordine Amrani. He threw few grenades and fired an FN FAL rifle at citizens on Saint-Lambert Square. In this attack, 6 people were killed and left 125 others injured. Among these injured people, seven people suffered very seriously. Amrani then devoted suicide by shooting himself with a pistol. Earlier that day, he had also killed a woman in his house. A Christmas market or Christkindlmarkt, Marché de Noël is a street market what related with the celebration of Christmas during the 4 weeks of Advent.

2013
On 13th December, 2013, during the Arapahoe High School shooting, A female student was looking for the librarian was shot dead in a hallway by another student after the librarian had downgraded him on the debate team. The shooter took his own life soon afterwards. Arapahoe High School is a popular public high school what is situated in Centennial, Colorado, United States. This is located in a suburb of Denver. This is the flagship of the Littleton Public Schools District as the largest of three high schools.

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