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18th November

326
The old St. Peter’s Basilica was blessed on 18th November, 326. Old St. Peter’s Basilica was the structure. This started from the 4th to 16th centuries. This happened where the new St. Peter’s Basilica starts today in Vatican City. The construction of the basilica was constructed over the historical site of the Circus of Nero, This commenced through the supremacy of Sovereign Constantine I. The name “old St. Peter’s Basilica” has been used since the construction of the current basilica to differentiate the 2 buildings.

1105
Maginulfo was selected the Antipope as Sylvester IV on 18th November, 1105. An antipope was a popular person. He was in opposition to the one who was normally seen as the legally selected as a Pope, makes a meaningfully recognized opposing entitlement to be the Pope, the Bishop of Rome and leader of the Catholic Church. At this time between the 3rd and mid-15th century, antipopes were maintained by a fairly important party of spiritual cardinals and earthly royals and kingdoms. Persons who right to be pope, but have few groups, such as the modern sedevacantist antipopes, were not confidential with the historical antipopes. Sylvester IV was a candidate to the papacy from the year 1105 to year 1111. He was also one of the members of the Roman nobility, with the support of the German king Henry V, set up another antipope to substitute Pope Paschal II, electing Maginulfo, the Archpriest of St. Angelo in Peschiera, while Paschal II was away from Rome.

1180
Phillip II became a king of France on 18th November, 1180. Philip II is also known as Philip Augustus. He was a King of France and served from the year 1180 to year 1223. He was a member of the House of Capet. Philip’s ancestors had been recognized as kings of the Franks. Philip became the 1st French ruler to style himself “King of France.” He was a son of King Louis VII and his 3rd wife, Adèle of Champagne. He was initially named Dieudonné “God-given” since he was the first son of Louis VII, born late in his father’s life.

1494
On 18th November, 1494, French King Charles VIII occupied Florence, Italy. Charles VIII is also called the Affable, French. He was a monarch of the House of Valois. He ruled as a Sovereign of France from the year 1483 to his end of life in the year 1498. He thrived his father Louis XI at the age of 13. His elder sister Anne of France replaced as extra equally with her husband Peter II, Duke of Bourbon until the year 1491 when the young ruler turned 21 years old. During Anne’s regency, the great lords protested against royal centralization labors in a battle recognized as the Mad War which caused in a conquest for the royal government. The First Italian battle is also called as the Italian War of 1494. It is also called Charles VIII’s Italian War. It was the inaugural stage of the Italian Wars. The battle pitted Charles VIII of France, who had early Milanese aid, against the Holy Roman Territory, Spain, and an connotation of Italian powers led by Pope Alexander VI.
1626
The new St Peter’s Basilica was consecrated on 18th November, 1626. The Papal Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican or simply St. Peter’s Basilica. This is an Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City, the papal reserve within the town of Rome. This was designed mainly by Donato Bramante, Carlo Maderno, Michelangelo and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, St. Peter’s is the most famous work of Renaissance building and the largest church in the world. While it is neither the mother church of the Catholic Church nor the cathedral of the Diocese of Rome, St. Peter’s is experiential as one of the holiest Catholic shrines.

1865
On 18th November, 1865, Mark Twain’s short story named “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” was published in the New York Saturday Press. Samuel Langhorne Clemens is also called by his pen name Mark Twain. He was a popular American writer, entrepreneur, humorist, publisher, and lecturer. Among all of his recognized novels are The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and its sequel, the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, the latter often named “The Great American Novel”. “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” is popular story and it made by Mark Twain. This was his 1st great achievement as a writer and carried him national consideration. The story has also been printed as “Jim Smiley and His Jumping Frog” and “The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County”. The Saturday Press was the term of a mythical weekly newspaper. This was published in New York from the year 1858 to year 1860 and again between the years 1865 to 1866 and edited by Henry Clapp, Jr.

1905
Prince Carl of Denmark became a King Haakon VII of Norway on 18th November, 1905. Haakon VII born as Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel. He is called Prince Carl of Denmark until the year 1905. He was a Danish prince who became the 1st monarch of Norway after the year 1905 closure of the union with Sweden. He ruled from November 1905 until his life’s end in September 1957.

1918
On 18th November, 1918, Latvia declared its freedom from Russia. Latvia is formally called the Republic of Latvia. This is a country what is located in the Baltic region of Northern Europe, one of the three Baltic states. This is surrounded by Lithuania to the south, Estonia to the north, Belarus to the southeast and Russia to the east as well as sharing a maritime border with Sweden to the west. Latvia has 1,957,200 populations.

1944
The Popular Socialist Youth was originated in Cuba on 18th November, 1944. The Popular Socialist Youth was a youth society in Cuba what is the youth wing of the Popular Socialist Party. Raúl Valdés Vivó was the universal secretary of the society. By the year 1960, this organization was assessed to have around 13,000 members. Raúl Castro was a member of the society for sometimes. Cuba is officially called the Republic of Cuba. It is a country what including the island of Cuba and Isla de la Juventud and numerous minor archipelagos. Cuba is situated in the northern Caribbean where the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean meet.

2013
On 18th November, 2013, NASA launched the MAVEN probe to Mars. Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN Mission is a space probe what was established by NASA and it was designed to study the Martian atmosphere whereas orbiting Mars. The mission goals comprise decisive how the planet’s atmosphere and water, assumed to have once been considerable, were lost finished period.

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