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31st December

1501
On 31st December, 1501, The First Battle of Cannanore started. The naval battle of Cannanore was a naval assignation. This battle held between the naval forces of Calicut and the Third Portuguese Armada under João da Nova. This had been collected by the Zamorin against the Portuguese for stop their return to Portugal. The war held over 2 days between 31st December 1501 and 2nd January 1502. This was the 1st major Portuguese naval appointment in the Indian Ocean. Although seriously outstripped, da Nova’s bold tactics, better skilled and ready men and larger weaponry demonstrated decisive for the Portuguese to overthrow the blocking force of Calicut, break out of Cannanore, and appear victorious from the war.

1600
The British East India Company was chartered on 31st December, 1600. The East India Company is also called as the Honorable East India Company. This is named the British East India Company and casually as John Company. This was an English and later it became the British joint-stock company. It was formed to chase trade with the “East Indies” but ended up trading mostly with Qing China and grabbing power of the Indian subcontinent. Initially, it was chartered as the “Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies”, the company rose to account for half of the world’s trade, mainly in basic commodities with cotton, indigo dye, silk, salt, saltpeter, tea, and opium. The company also governed the initial stages of the British Kingdom in India.

1660
James II of England was named Duke of Normandy by Louis XIV of France on 31st December, 1660. James II and VII was a King of England and Ireland. He was popular as James II. He was a King of Scotland as James VII, from 6th February 1685 until he was overthrew in the Magnificent Rebellion of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland. The Duke of Normandy was the governor of the Duchy of Normandy in the Middle Ages in north-western France . The duchy rose out of an endorse of land to the Viking leader Rollo by the French king Charles III in 911. In the year 924 and again in the year 933, Normandy was prolonged by royal grant. Louis XIV is also known as Louis the Great. He is also called the Sun King. He was a king of the House of Bourbon who governed as a King of France from the year 1643 until his death in year 1715. In the age of totalitarianism in Europe, Louis XIV’s France was a leader in the growing concentration of power.

1790
Efimeris was one of the oldest Greek newspaper of which issues have survived till today, was published for the first time on 31st December, 1790. Efimeris was a Greek language newspaper and it is published in Vienna from the year 1790 to year 1797. This is the oldest Greek newspaper of which issues have endured till today.

1796
The incorporation of Baltimore as a city held on 31st December, 1796. Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland. It is the 30th-most populated city what is located in the United States. Baltimore was recognized by the Constitution of Maryland. It is not part of any county. With a populace of 621,849 in the year 2015, Baltimore is the largest autonomous city in the United States.

1831
On 31st December. 1831, Gramercy Park was deeded to New York City. Gramercy Park is the name of both a small, fenced-in private park and the nearby area that is called to also as Gramercy in the New York City what area of Manhattan in New York, United States. The almost 2-acre park is located in the Gramercy Park Historic District. This is one of 2 private parks in New York City and the other is Sunnyside Gardens Park in Queens as well as one of only 3 in the state only people exist in around the park who pay an annual fee have a key. The general public is not permitted in the sidewalks of the streets around.

1906
On 31st December, 1906, Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar signed the Persian Constitution of 1906. Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar was the 5th Qajar king of Persia. He governed between from 1896 to 1907. He was credited with the formation of the Persian constitution but often he was incorrectly credited with the increase of the Persian Constitutional Rebellion which took place instantly after his demise. The Persia Constitution of 1906 was the 1st constitution of Persia that occasioned from the Persian Constitutional Rebellion. This was written by Hossein Pirnia, Hassan Pirnia and Ismail Mumtaz among others. It divides into 5 chapters with many articles that established over many years. The Belgian composition, like the constitutions of other European states, assisted as a incomplete model for the Iranian composition.

1955
General Motors became the first U.S. corporation to make over US$1 billion in a year on 31st December, 1955. General Motors Company is generally called as GM. This is an American international corporation and its headquarter is in Michigan, Detroit that manufactures, designs, markets, and assigns automobiles and automobile parts, and sells financial services. With global headquarters at the Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan, United States, GM produces cars and trucks in 35 countries.

1961
RTÉ, Ireland’s state broadcaster, launched its first national television service on 31st December, 1961. Raidió Teilifís Éireann is a semi-state company and the national public service newscaster of the Republic of Ireland. This both crops broadcasts and programs them on radio, television and the Internet. The radio service started on 1st January 1926, while steady television programs began on 31st December 1961, making it one of the oldest incessantly operating public service broadcasters in the world. RTÉ published a weekly lifestyle magazine named the RTÉ Guide.

1985
United Kingdom founded a member state of UNESCO on 31st December, 1985. The Northern Ireland and United Kingdom of Great Britain are called as the United Kingdom and colloquially Great Britain or Britain. It is an independent country in western Europe. GB covers the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom contains the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. As of November of the year 2015, UNESCO members contain 195 member states and 10 secondary members. Some members have added National Organizing Committees for some of their reliant on territories. The assistant members are non-independent states.

2009
On 31st December, 2009, Both a blue moon and a lunar eclipse occurred. A blue moon is an additional full moon what seems in a subdivision of a year: either the 3rd of four full moons in a season, or a 2nd full moon in a month of the common calendar.

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