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7th October

1571
On 7th October, 1571, the Battle of Lepanto was occured and the Ottoman Navy suffered its first overthrow. The Battle of Lepanto was a naval appointment took place on 7th October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League. Here the Venetian Kingdom and the Spanish Territory were the major powers and imposed a major defeat on the navy of the Ottoman Kingdom in the Gulf of Patras, where the Ottoman forces sailing westwards from their naval station in Lepanto met the fleet of the Holy League sailing east from Messina, Sicily. The Holy League was an alliance of European Catholic maritime states. This fleet set by Pope Pius V and controlled by admiral John of Austria, as settled between the Venetian Republic and Philip II of Spain, he financed the League mostly. The Ottoman Navy is also called as the Ottoman Fleet. This was recognized in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Realm first extended to reach the sea in the year 1323 by taking Karamürsel. The site of the 1st Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy. During its long life, it was related in many lethal battles and contracted a number of naval agreements. At its height, the Navy protracted to the Indian Ocean, sending an voyage to Indonesia in the year 1565.

1582
Since of the operation of the Gregorian calendar, this day was skipped in Poland, Italy, Portugal and Spain on 7th October, 1582. The Gregorian calendar is worldwide the most extensively used civil calendar. This is called after Pope Gregory XIII. He introduced it for the first time in October 1582. The calendar was a modification to the Julian calendar connecting a 0.002% alteration in the length of the year. The incentive for the improvement was to stop the meaning of the calendar with admiration to the equinoxes and solstices—mainly the northern vernal equinox, which helps set the date for Easter. Change to the Gregorian calendar would restore the holiday to the period of the year in which it was renowned when announced by the early Church. The improvement was approved originally by the Catholic countries of Europe.

1691
The English royal charter for the Area of Massachusetts Bay was issued on 7th October, 1691. The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony in British North America. This is one of the 13 major states of the United States from the year 1776. It was commissioned on 7th October, 1691 by Mary II and William III, this united sovereigns of the empires of Scotland, England and Ireland. The charter took consequence on 14th May, 1692, and encompassed the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Province of Maine, the Plymouth Colony, Martha’s Vineyard, Nova Scotia, Nantucket and New Brunswick.

1840
On 7th October, Willem II became a King of the Netherlands. William II was a King of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Netherlands, and Duke of Limburg. William II was the only son of William I and Wilhelmine of Prussia. When his father ruled as autonomous prince and announced himself as a king in the year 1815, he became Prince of Orange as successor seeming of the Empire of the Netherlands. With the renunciation of his father on 7th October 1840, William II became a king. During his supremacy, the Netherlands became a governmental egalitarianism with the new constitution of 1848. William II was wedded to Anna Pavlovna of Russia and they had 5 children and those were four sons and one daughter. William II died on March 17, 1849 and was prospered by his son William III.

1868
Cornell University hold inaugural day ceremonies; early student registration was 412, the highest at any American university to that date on 7th October, 1868. Cornell University is a private and constitutional Ivy League research university. This University is very recognized and it is situated in Ithaca, New York. In 1865, this University was founded by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White. The university was planned to explain and make helps in all major fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These principles, eccentric for the time, are apprehended in Cornell’s motto, a general 1865 Ezra Cornell quotation: I would found an organization where any person can find training in any study.

1912
The Helsinki Stock Exchange saw its first transaction on 7th October, 1912. The Helsinki Stock Exchange is a stock exchange. This is situated in Helsinki, Finland. Since 3rd September 2003, it has been part of Nasdaq Nordic. It was called OMX. After the OMX meld, it was stated to as OMX Helsinki or OMXH, then after NASDAQ’s gaining of OMX in February 2008, NASDAQ OMX Helsinki, and presently Nasdaq Helsinki. The Helsinki Stock Exchange saw its first transaction on 7th October, 1912. From then it remained a “free form” financial connotation until in the year 1984 it was converted into a cooperative owned mostly by banks, traders, other corporations and associations.

1933
After being developed by a merger of 5 French airlines, Air France was inaugurated on 7th October, 1933. Air France is formally called Société Air France, S.A. It is stylized as AIRFRANCE. It is the French flag carrier and headquartered of this airlines is in Tremblay-en-France. It is a subsidiary of the Air France–KLM Group and a establishment member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance. As of 2013 Air France serves 36 destinations in France and operates international scheduled passenger and cargo services to 168 destinations in 93 countries and also carried about 46,803,000 passengers in the year 2015.

1949
The communist German Democratic Republic was formed on 7th October, 1949. East Germany is officially called the German Democratic Republic. It was a socialist state in Central Europe, in the Cold War time. Between the years 1949 to 1990, it managed the region of Germany that was engaged by Soviet forces at the end of World War II—the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Contract, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line. The Soviet zone enclosed West Berlin, but did not contain it; as a result, West Berlin continued external the jurisdiction of the GDR.

1977
On 7th October, 1977, the adoption of the 4th Soviet Constitution held. At the 7th Session of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union Ninth Convocation, the third and last Soviet Constitution, also called as the Brezhnev Constitution, was totally adopted. The preamble stated that “the aims of the dictatorship of the proletariat having been satisfied, the Soviet state has become the state of the whole people.” Associated with former compositions, the Brezhnev Constitution protracted the bounds of constitutional rule of society.

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